Degrees, Foreign Languages, and Life Lessons

FL.png

I love learning new information. And, I am intentional about sharing that information with parents so they can be empowered and help their learners move closer toward the best, well-informed decisions about their future.

Yesterday I called a college in the State of Florida to get some answers. In the process of talking with an advisor in the Bachelor's Degree office, I learned some new tidbits about degrees and foreign language. The information below relates to all students, unless specifically mentioned as pertaining to homeschooled graduates. 

1. The AS degree is considered a terminal degree. The goal is to provide the graduate with enough career specific content and skills to enter the workforce without continued education.

2. The State of Florida requires 36 General Education semester hours for the AA and BA, but not for the AS. If the student obtains an AS degree and then decides to transfer to another college to earn a BA or BS degree, additional General Education hours may have to be taken in addition to the degree requirements. 

3. The General Education credits required for the AS are reduced in order to make room for career specific content. For example, the AS degree our family is researching requires only one semester of English (as opposed to two) and no foreign language coursework. In addition, College Algebra is not required for the AS of our interest (check the AS of interest as this may vary per career field). 

4. Foreign language is required for AA and Bachelor's degrees in Florida. However, we were personally told by the Office for Students with Disabilities at Valencia this requirement may be waived by an appeal process IF the student with documented disabilities enrolls in a course, demonstrates disability, and successfully wins an appeal for course substitution. When I asked the representative at the college I contacted yesterday about whether an AA appeal would stand should the AA graduate then transfer to a four-year university to continue post-secondary study toward a BS or BA, the advisor said the decision would rest with the institution conferring the bachelor's. At her college, the student would be required to take the foreign language before being awarded the BS or BA.  In other words, the foreign language though waived for the AA, would have to be taken later at the college or university granting the BS or BA. For students with diagnosed learning differences, this question would need to be posed to the Office of Student Disabilities at the college or university granting the BS or BA. This is one of those decisions which could be college specific. (Updated 11-3-2018: Read Florida State University’s policy here).

5. While I had the advisor on the phone, I asked questions about foreign language as this is always a debated topic in homeschooling circles and I want to stay current. How universities handle foreign language varies per institution and policies can change. Therefore, I specifically asked if they accepted high school foreign language credit to waive the college language requirement for the AA. She hesitated and responded, "It depends." I then specifically asked whether two years of foreign language with FLVS would be used to satisfy the college requirement and she said yes without hesitation (which has been our experience with two other home ed grads). All other methods of learning foreign language would be evaluated by the institution. Once transferring with the AA to the institution granting the BS or BA, the high school transcript would re-evaluated, specifically determining where the foreign language was taken. If this could not be validated to their satisfaction, the student would have to take the foreign language before earning the BS or BA, even though the student earned the AA. We personally experienced this with one of our learners. Valencia verified the language was taken in high school (we used FLVS) for the AA requirement and when our son transferred to UCF to move toward the BA, they contacted us and verified our two years of FLVS.  

At the end of the phone conversation, I had several takeaways. The most important takeaway reinforced what I knew: 


High school foreign language decisions follow our learners through the college years. 


Seems weighty. It does to me anyway (and I've graduated three with another two close behind; they are all different). However, this statement doesn't have to keep me fearful that we (parent and young adult) will make wrong decisions. Instead, the information can empower us. With what we know information can be discuss, options can be considered, questions can be asked, and we can weigh future implications to make the best decisions we can at any given time, for each learner. This statement also reminds us that in our temporary inconveniences (not liking an instructor or a delivery method) we must consider long-term consequences (not completing a course may affect us later). 

That's a life lesson which reaches beyond degrees and foreign languages.

It's real-life learning! 

Looking for more information about foreign languages? Consider these blog posts. 

Foreign Language: Questions You Need to Ask

Foreign Language: What Homeschoolers Need to Know

Foreign Language: Which Language

Dual Enrollment? Not So Fast

College Admission Requirements for Home Educated Students

As stated in this post, information changes—sometimes rapidly. Here are some links to updates you may find helpful (updated 11-3-2018).

Florida State University’s 2018-2019 Foreign Language Policy for their College of Arts and Sciences

University of Central Florida Foreign Language Proficiency Requirement (Bachelor of Arts Degree)

University of North Florida’s 2018-2019 Foreign Language Requirement for Bachelor of Arts Degree

University of Florida College of Liberal Arts and Sciences Graduation Requirements and CLAS Foreign Language Requirement

FPEA9.jpg

The Possibilities of Elective Credits: Part I

What about elective credits?

Mike and I field this question often. 

The short response?  

There are endless possibilities to potential elective credits. 

If your high school student is enrolled in a public or private school, be sure to check the school's offerings. Choices vary for each school. 

If you are home educating the high school journey, know your state statute and graduation requirements as well as how they apply to home educated students. Find out if your state allows parents the freedom and responsibility to create core or elective courses. This is important because some states require home educated students to take only courses offered in the state. Other states give parents the ability to oversee the child's education, hence the creation and oversight of classes, should the family choose that path. Your state statute requirements will provide what is required of the parent and student and therefore shed light upon the possibilities available to the family.

For those who are home educating and have the ability to choose elective credits, consider:

The life-goals (if known) of your learner. For some high schoolers, they will have a clear understanding and direction for what they will pursue after high school graduation. Other young adults will be exploring their interests and therefore, getting a better idea of what they might do after they turn the tassel. The good news is there is no right time for a learner to decide next steps after graduation.

If there isn't a clear path, prepare for the broadest possibilities.  Be careful not to short change the young adult. 

For learners who have an inkling of what they want to do post high school, they will move forward in that direction. As you help process their ideas, keep an open perspective. Be ready for change. An interest one semester may transform into a niche the following semester.  

One of our high school learners became interested in veterinarian medicine. She even considered this as a possible career path for a few months. We felt our next right step was talking with professionals in the field and preparing for a job shadowing experience or volunteer opportunity should either become available to her. In our brainstorming process, we considered several venues: a vet's office, a local clinic, and the county animal shelter. As part of our conversations, we came up with what questions which would be helpful should an opportunity to talk with a veterinarian present itself. Our questions included:

  • What universities are considered optimal for this profession?
  • What are the potential degree and career paths for this profession?
  • What classes or experiences were most helpful in the education process? 
  • What are the specialty ares of this field of study?
  • What would you, as a professional, recommend for a young adult pursuing this career?

While present at on-site opportunities—job shadowing, volunteering, or internships—our high schoolers are encouraged to be mindful and open to how they can bring value to the host while present. This might include offering to fold clean towels or empty trash cans. We also encourage our young adults to observe office etiquette and practices (real-life learning at its best). Along these lines, we suggest visiting several venues within the same niche as well as any which are closely related or dependent upon the specialty. In the case of veterinary medicine, specialties may include veterinary oncology or ophthalmology. From the varied experiences, the learner is able to compare office practices and evaluate care from a broader perspective. Ultimately, these experiences may allow the learner to narrow his or her potential field of study while earning high school electives.

Experiential learning in high school is as valuable as in the elementary and middle school years. 

When thinking about elective credits, parents and learners can take into account the acquisition of life skills while also considering the academic admission requirements of the learner’s top choice universities. This consideration is—from our experience—extremely important and often overlooked. Colleges of interest frequently get deleted from the list of potentials for many reasons. Sometimes it’s the test scores which make the choice seem out of reach. Other times it’s the foreign language requirement. There are a plethora of other reasons, too. However, perhaps the most common reason parents tell us they eliminated a university from the list of possibilities is the belief that the cost of the education is beyond the financial reach of the family. Mike and I encourage parents and young adults to keep every potential school on the list of consideration, even if attendance seems out of reach for some reason. In doing so, students will be prepared academically for admission to all their choice colleges come application season. We know learners who desired to attend private, out-of-state schools who eventually were awarded full room and board for four years based on academic merit, community service, or in one situation, a drawing at a college fair! 

The interests of your learner. I find it ironic that elementary-aged children are often encouraged to explore their interests, yet as the middle and high school years loom on the horizon, the tune changes. When it does, students, parents, and educators tend to concentrate on core courses (with good reason) while pushing strengths and giftings to the side. Yet, often those strengths and giftings are the very elements which learners need to be successful adults--not to mention reduce the stress of some tougher core courses. Wouldn't it be wonderful if--during the middle and high school years--students, parents, and teachers could find ways for learners to complete required courses while also engaging in and exploring interests and strengths? 

As home education evaluators and consultants, Mike and I have seen AMAZING outcomes for young adults who have had opportunities to complete required core courses (and therefore be eligible for college admission at schools of their choice) while also delving into areas of interest.

While studying algebra, history, and biology, our third high schooler continued to build the business she started in middle school. In doing so, she was able to complete core courses while also learning important small business skills: purchasing and crafting inventory, budgeting and filing taxes, investigating advertising, setting up a website, and showcasing inventory at craft shows and expos. Her income allowed her to purchase her own clothing, save money, and tithe to church. To manage her income and expenses, she created a spreadsheet where she recorded her finances. Personal Finance found its way on the transcript that year, right under the algebra, American history, and biology.

The current life season of your family. When my grandmother was terminally ill, we spent four months visiting and researching facilities--navigating pros and cons of each--as Gram's needs changed. In addition, we visited Grammy three times a week, caring for her and connecting with her "friends" in each facility. We talked with care workers about what they did and how they obtained their education and professional licensing. As evaluation time rolled around, I couldn't even begin to remember all we did. But, my high schooler did! In fact, she asked whether all she had taken part in and learned could be used for credit. GREAT question! And after discussing all she learned and researching high school and college course equivalent to what she completed, I titled the course Cares and Concerns of the Elderly. Definitely an eye-catcher on her transcript. You can read more about how this course came about in this blog post. 

What situations are upon your family? How can those normal, every day opportunities become credit? For example, if you're painting your house, your learners are learning how to calculate the amount of paint needed, research paint types, buy good tools (good quality tools make the job go well), use and care for tools properly, run a pressure washer, trim paint small areas, roll on paint, clean rollers and brushes, and store tools so they can be in good condition for the next project. The list is endless. As we tackle painting the outside of our home this week, I stepped up our ladder thinking, this is real-life home economics (though in the past I titled the course home maintenance and repair). If you need to tackle a home project and don't know where to begin, model for your children how to find an expert in the field (read more about this here) or search for an online tutorial. These are important research skills your learners will need in life. 

What are the elective possibilities for your young adult? Begin observing what the learner is already doing? Where are the areas to which he or she gravitates? Are there real-life activities and opportunities in which he or she is participating? Considering interests, strengths, and aspirations as well as the admission requirements of the high schooler’s top college choices will return great rewards as the high school years come to a close.

A last note for consideration...

What about excessive credits? 

As Mike and I have worked with families over the past twenty-three years, there have been a few cases in which a student has earned excessive credits--more than 35 credits! In other words, the reader of the transcript would wonder if the learner ever slept. However, this has been only a few scenarios. In those situations, parents were able to include content from one course into another already existing course without being accused of credit inflation. It is possible for homeschooled students to earn more credits than the average student. This is acceptable if indeed the credit is not inflated. 

For more information on documenting elective course work, check out part 3.

Needing ideas for elective course titles? Click on over to Part 2. 

This blog post is intended to offer an example of personal experience. It is in no way intended to be legal advice and should not be taken as such. Parents own the sole responsibility for the training and education of their children. 

This refreshed post was originally published December 2016.

The Volunteer Advantage

volu.png

Colleges and universities LOVE applicants with volunteer experience. These opportunities tell how the high schooler used his or her time, in other words, how the young adult spent his or her hours outside of books and traditional learning environments. In fact, some colleges value community service so highly that they are offering scholarships for accomplishments in service. 

And, some states--like ours--require volunteer service for merit scholarships. 

Knowing what universities look for regarding community service and researching your state's merit scholarship may prove beneficial to your high school learner.

Al Nunez, Director of Admissions at Illinois Institute of Technology, was interviewed for the November 12, 2013 issue of U.S. News and World Report. In that interview he encouraged students to highlight their accomplishments.


Applying to a university is your time to brag about yourself. Talk about all the things that you’ve done, including jobs, including whether you’ve volunteered at your church or did community service.

Why volunteer?

  • Volunteer opportunities offer opportunities for high schoolers to learn more about themselves and impact the lives of other people.
  • Community service may provide leadership opportunities. Colleges and universities are looking for applicants who have taken on leadership roles. 
  • High schoolers preferring hands-on, experiential learning with interpersonal interactions can thrive in these environments. Truly, this can be an area where kinesthetic learners can thrive.
  • Service opportunities can help high schoolers fine tune what they enjoy, how they learn best, and what career field they may want to pursue. 
  • Volunteer opportunities also make great experiential stories for application essays.
  • When the time comes to request letters of recommendation for college admission, professionals and supervisors who have worked with the high schooler through volunteer opportunities may be willing to write on the applicant's behalf, commenting about work ethic, acquired skills, and character.

As evaluators, we've enjoyed the company of high school young adults who've benefited from the volunteer advantage. One particular young lady we know served thousands (no exaggeration) of hours which provided her a competitive advantage and helped her land a $25,000 scholarship. 

Why NOT volunteer?

Service hours are just that, opportunities to serve with a sincere heart. They are not requirements or obligations to meet. Often there are people on the receiving end and those people matter. People are not projects or resume enhancements and they don't want to be served with that type of attitude. When volunteer hours become boxes to check off, they are no longer means by which to serve with empathy and compassion. 

In addition, often community service becomes a means by which the parent-child relationship is strained. We all fall into the nagging "Did you log your hours?" trap at one time or another. Stress and fear will affect our high schooler's attitudes toward service. When we do, it is time to back up and reflect on that matters.

Where volunteer? 

Volunteering, like many other aspects of the high school years, is another venue to build relationship and communication skills. Brainstorm ideas together. Talk about volunteer etiquette. Role play requests or phone interviews.

These ideas may be talking points. 

  • serve at local animal shelters
  • raise and train service animals
  • sort groceries in food pantry or shelter
  • serve meals at homeless shelter
  • serve as a police explorer
  • provide service at local horse barn 
  • serve in local teen court
  • help with registration and water distribution for marathons and fun runs. 
  • deliver Meals-on-Wheels
  • serve with Special Olympics or local Down's syndrome chapter (graduate schools often host these types of events)
  • read to children in children's home or residents in assisted living and memory care facilities
  • create floral arrangements for church altar
  • weed flower beds for non-profit or local recreation center
  • be a safety ambassador for National Safety Council
  • design a website for church or local non-profit organization
  • provide counter or concession help for sports events
  • place flags on grave sites of veterans
  • tutor elementary students
  • collect clothing and non-perishables for shelters and crisis centers
  • work with a political campaign 
  • serve on a building team for Habitat for Humanity
  • be a mentor with Big Brothers, Big Sisters
  • serve as a junior assistant coach for youth sports
  • collect food or other needed items for animal shelters 
  • prepare a meal or care packs at Ronald McDonald homes (usually near children's hospitals)
  • pack meals for hurricane or typhoon relief
  • gather crayons, small tablets, or other items for pew packs to be given to small worshippers.
  • usher at local theater 
  • work at the local library
  • volunteer at local science center
  • serve at wildlife rehabilitation or Audubon center
  • provide musical entertainment or puppetry at assisted living and memory care centers
  • play or sing with church worship teams
  • serve on disaster relief teams
  • sew costuming for theatrical performances
  • construct music or theater sets
  • provide babysitting or childcare for Bible studies, MOPS meetings, or parent meetings
  • plan a birthday celebration for residents at assisted living center

Like many aspects of the high school experience, not all colleges require or put equal weight on the same admission requirements. Princeton ranks admission requirements here. Research and knowledge are important. What is beneficial to one learner will not be beneficial to another. 

Will volunteer and community service benefit your high schooler? 

The answer will be unique to your high schooler and may be only conversations and clicks away. Your efforts will make a difference, not only for your high school learner but also for the people who are blessed to benefit from his or her sincere service.

YOU can celebrate high school! 

 

The contents of this post are meant to share personal experience and are not intended to be legal or educational advice. 

 

 

Transferring AP, Dual Enrollment, and CLEP Credits

Transfer.png

Accelerated credit—earning early college credit while in high school—is often referred to as advanced credit or credit exemption. The most common accelerated learning options include dual enrollment, Advanced Placement (AP), and College Level Examination Program (CLEP).

Dual Enrollment

Dual enrollment allows learners to earn high school and college credits simultaneously, before graduating from high school. Although dual enrollment can be a great option, it is not the best option for all learners.

Credit Exemption Options

Credit exemption by means of testing is another acceleration mechanism. Examples include AP and CLEP.  Parents and students should be aware that colleges and universities adopt institution specific guidelines for accepting accelerated credit by exam and often post test score and course exemptions on their websites. Knowing what will and will not be accepted can save time and money. 

  • Advanced Placement (AP) equates to college credit if the student takes the corresponding AP exam and scores well. Acceptable scores and the college credit earned with those scores varies from university to university. For example, Stetson University offers a chart stating scores, credits earned, and courses which may be substituted for the earned scores. 
  • College-Level Examination Program (CLEP) is sponsored by the College Board. Though some colleges and universities accept all CLEP exam credits--there are 33 tests available--others have specific guidelines as to which exams they will honor. Again, it is helpful to search a university's website to find out the details. 

To find out whether a learner's college of choice accepts dual enrollment, AP, or CLEP, search for a universitiy's transfer of credits statement on the school's website. Most universities devote a whole page to transfer of credit guidelines with links specific to their campus. 

This list may help get you started in your quest. 

Bellhaven University

Clemson University - AP

Florida State University

Georgia State University - AP

Georgia State University - CLEP

Harvard College

Iowa State - AP

Iowa State - CLEP

Kansas State

Kansas University - AP

Kennesaw State University

Louisiana State university

Miami-Dade College - AP

Miami-Dade - CLEP

Miami University of Ohio

Michigan State University

Millersville University -AP

Penn State University - CLEP

Purdue University - AP

Purdue University - CLEP

Rollins College

Seton Hall University

Stetson University

Texas A&M - CLEP

Thomas Edison State University

University of Alabama

University of Florida - AP 

University of Florida - Credit by Examination

University of Florida - Transfer Statement

University of Kentucky - CLEP

University of Maryland - CLEP

University of Massachusetts - CLEP

University of Minnesota - CLEP

University of Montana - CLEP

University of Nebraska - CLEP

University of North Florida

University of Oklahoma

University of Oklahoma - CLEP

University of Tennessee

Wheaton College

Wofford College - AP

Looking for the home education admission requirements for colleges and universities? Check out this blog post. 

Just one more reason why

EVERY. MOMENT. MATTERS. 

even in the high school years!

This blog post is intended to offer an example of personal experience. It is in no way intended to be legal advice and should not be taken as such. Parents own the sole responsibility for the training and education of their children. 

Dual Enrollment? Not So Fast

Dual enrollment offers learners opportunity to earn high school and college credits--simultaneously--before graduating from high school.

DEnroll.png

It's a great option for some students.

But, it isn't the best option for all students.

Yes, sign me up! (the Pros)

  • Free or reduced tuition for college-level courses.
  • Experience campus life.
  • Offers student opportunity to learn course content in the student's area of interest.
  • Student's enrolled get to learn what goes into completing college work.
  • Allows colleges and universities to validate a student ready and capable of handling college-level material.
  • May improve a student's weighted GPA. 
  • May equate to graduating from college early. 
  • Evaluation (grade and credit) based on the entire course, not on single test performance. 

Not so fast! (the Cons)

  • While there's money to save, there may not be savings in the long run. Be sure to research what courses are needed for a degree and if credits will transfer. 
  • Not all learners are ready to walk on campus alongside older students. Perhaps, inquire about online options.
  • Not all admission advisors are versed in the prerequisites for specific college majors, hence some courses may be taken and "wasted". Parents should stand ready to know the requirements of a learner's four-year degree (or possible majors) and double check advisor guidance. 
  • Not all credits may be accepted; some courses in the major area may be required to be completed where degree will be earned. Check transfer policies like this one for UNF. 
  • Excess hours may be costly
  • Some colleges won't accept all dual enrolled courses. Research and ask questions to avoid unnecessary surprises. 
  • Grades earned become part of a permanent college transcript. 

Some of the biggest mistakes we have seen families make are:

Not knowing degree requirements. We know students who weren't sure of future major take an introductory science course (generally without a lab and worth three college credits)--Introduction to Biological Sciences, for example--thinking it would be easier, only to find out once the major was declared the lab science was required. The student sat through another science--Biology in most of the cases we know--again.

Starting dual enrollment too early. It is wise that parents remember DE grades become a permanent part of the college transcript. We personally know quite a few families wishing they had waited to dual enroll their students--especially for foreign language--because doing so compromised their learner's GPA. And, in some cases, being on the President's list (with a 4.0) each semester of the AA has earned students merit scholarship when transferring to an institution to complete the Bachelor's.

For example, several young adults we mentor through annual evaluations decided to complete foreign language credit through dual enrollment. Each of them soared through the first semester, each earning an A. However, the second semester the students didn't fair as well because of the difficulty of the content. In the majority of those learners earned a C, compromising their overall college GPA. 

When our learners hit the high school years, we discussed accelerated credit options with each student. Each had different options to consider due to their varied after high school plans. For our learner who did dual enroll, I am thankful we did not consider foreign language as part of his dual enrollment plans. Why? At the end of earning 60+ hours for his AA, the university to which he was transferring offered him scholarship monies because he transferred to complete his Bachelor's with a 4.0 GPA--hence earning a spot on the President's list every semester. Could he have gotten A's in his foreign language classes at the state college? Possibly. Yet, thankfully we didn't take that gamble. 

Additional resources

If you are a Florida resident, consider this comparison of accelerated learning. 

Parents looking for additional research may want to refer to this article by The National Center for Postsecondary Research.

The decision to dual enroll should not be taken lightly. Each learner is unique in ability and maturity. In addition, some students find it more beneficial to focus their high school years in other directions--perhaps theater, entrepreneurship, or sports. Other learners will need the boost dual enrollment can provide. Dual enrollment is an individual family and learner decision and is worth every moment of research, questioning, and considering. 

YOU can celebrate high school by building and executing a plan unique to the individual learner. 

Just one more reason why

EVERY. MOMENT. MATTERS. 

even in the high school years! 

 

PSAT: Understanding the Scores

PSAT.png

Recently a parent asked me to help her understand the scoring of the PSAT. One of the first questions I asked her was what test her learner took. There are several tests with PSAT in the title (including PSAT8/9 and PSAT10), but only the scores of one test--the PSAT/NMSQT--can be used to qualify for the scholarship. Students usually take the PSAT/NMSQT in the Junior year. There are exceptions to this requirement of which parents should be aware. 

Though we talked about several aspects of the test and scoring, I encouraged her to connect with several reputable sites so she could better comprehend not only the scoring but also the National Merit Scholarship competition. 

First, I pointed her to several online resources which explain the scores of each of the PSAT tests: the Duke TIP identification program, the College Board's explanation of the PSAT8/9, the College Board's explanation of the PSAT10, the College Board's parent tutorial for scoring of the PSAT10, and the Princeton Review's scoring guide. 

Second, I encouraged her to learn more about the NMS competition itself. I pointed her to the National Merit Scholarship Corporation's website where she could read about how to enter the competition.

Third, I encouraged her to look over the Student Guide of the National Merit Scholarship Program. This guide is usually sent to school guidance counselors. Because the mom who asked me about scoring was a homeschooling mom, I knew she would be acting as her learner's guidance counselor (of sorts) and thought the guide would be helpful. 

With these resources at her fingertips, the inquiring mom could find the answers which best paralleled the unique questions she had for her learner. Working with hundreds of parents, one thing I have come to understand is that though there are some general questions most parents ask, parents also ask very specific questions based on the individual circumstances of a learner. Perhaps your questions are both general and student specific.

Be empowered! YOU are your learner's best advocate. 

Should Course Codes Be Used on Transcripts for Home Educated Graduates?

A year ago I addressed a common question, 

"Should homeschooling parents use course codes on home-generated transcripts for learners who graduate from a home education program?"

In other words, To Code or Not to Code. 

The question continues to be asked. This post offers example of the information previously addressed. 

The first step in answering the question is understanding what course codes are and why they are used. I encourage you to read the post. 

After reading the hows, whys, and what fors about course codes are used, do your own research. Remember, high school is not a one-size-fits-all experience--though we often want it to be. Wouldn't that be so much easier, too? 

Home School Legal Defense offers a fantastic resource--A Guide for Homeschooling through High School--which includes a sample transcript. 

Another step in the process of answering the course code question is to compare sample transcripts provided by colleges and universities for home schooled graduates seeking admission--as opposed to private or public schooled applicants.  Interestingly, in the research I have done I have yet to find a college or university which requires or suggests home graduates include course codes on home-generated transcripts. Again, the reason points back to why and how course codes are used. 

To help you in your search, I am including links to colleges and universities which offer sample transcripts  for home schooled candidates seeking admission. 

Baylor

http://www.baylor.edu/content/services/document.php/69395.pdf

Liberty University

https://www.liberty.edu/media/9930/documents/Homeschool_Transcript.pdf

George Mason University

http://admissions.gmu.edu/freshmen/homeSchoolInfo.asp

Houghton College

http://www.houghton.edu/am-site/media/homeschool-transcript.pdf

Princeton

https://admission.princeton.edu/how-apply/home-schooled-students

Vanderbilt

https://admissions.vanderbilt.edu/assets/pdf/homeschoolcurr.pdf

Covenant College

http://www.covenant.edu/pdf/admissions/trad/homeschool/homeschool_transcript-sample.pdf

Wheaton College

http://www.wheaton.edu/~/media/Files/AdmissionsAid/Undergrad/homeschool-transcript.pdf

University of West Florida

http://uwf.edu/media/university-of-west-florida/admissions/undergraduate/documents/Homeschooler-Transcript-Requirements-&-Examples.pdf

University of Wisconsin

https://www.admissions.wisc.edu/apply/freshman/homeschooled.php

Cedarville College

https://www.cedarville.edu/Admissions/Home-Schooled-Students.aspx

Knowing what colleges and universities are looking for on a transcript is helpful when creating this important document. Do research. If the college has a home education admission specialist, set up a phone or in-person appointment. Building your tool chest and knowledge base will empower you as you walk alongside your high school learner into the next stage of learning. 

This blog post is intended to offer an example of personal experience. It is in no way intended to be legal advice and should not be taken as such. Parents own the sole responsibility for the training and education of their children. 

 

 

 

High School Photography Elective

Several years ago, our daughter became interested in photography.

A real interest, one she thought about every day and one that did not go away!

She spent time researching and talking through her ideas about what she wanted to learn. Home educating, I knew she had the freedom to explore her interest as part of her day—every day—if she desired to do so.

Though I enjoy photography and have a "creative" bent, I had no idea what concepts and skills would be included in a high school level photography course. Therefore, when she asked me what areas I thought would be included in a photography course, I knew I would have to join in the learning. 

First, I searched the Internet for syllabi of high school level photography courses. Reading, I discovered common threads. This was a starting point.

Second, my daughter and I brainstormed additional content she wanted to learn. For example, she wanted to upgrade her camera. Researching the pros and cons of brands and features was definitely something she could include in her course.

Third, we talked about what real-life experiences could be added: job shadowing, taking pictures of family members, learning and using editing programs, and shooting seconds for a professional photographer.

Clearly, my daughter’s interest drove the learning. I simply had to be open to the ideas and be ready to encourage her progress.

Before we knew it we had accumulated not only content but resources.

Here is a snapshot of the content we developed. 

Course Content

I. History of photography

  • the pinhole camera, daguerreotype, Kodak Brownie camera, film development, darkrooms, Polaroid cameras, flash cubes, and flash bars

II. People of Influence

  • Joseph Nicephore Niepce, Loius Daguerre, R.L. Maddox, George Eastman

III. Types of Photography

  • portrait, children, pets, landscapes, macro, food, nature, architectural, forensic, sport, science, 

IV. Parts of a Camera

V. How Cameras Work

VI. Lighting, Shutter Speed, Aperture, Depth of field

VII. Composition, Color, Contrast, Brightness, Sharpness, and Special Techniques

VIII. Photo Editing

IX. Analyzing and Critiquing Photography

X. Documentary and Photojournalism 

XI. Famous Photographers and Photojournalists 

XII. Mounting and Displaying Photography 

  • enter photography in contests or county fairs

XIII. Digital Photography

XIV. Photography Careers

  • portrait photography, commercial photography, fine art photography, wedding photography, scientific photography, sports photography, medical photography, forensic photography, nature photography, aerial photography, photojournalism

XV. Photography Licenses

  • royalty free, rights managed, stock photography

XVI. Legal, Ethical and Copyright

  • fair use, buildings protected by copyright, difference between photography for personal use or commercial use, model/copyright releases, editorial photography as a profession in regards to rights and fair use

The outline above was the jumping off point. Once we had the major areas of study--at least a plan--we could adjust as we went along. 


We added experiential learning. Our list of considerations were

  • Job shadowing a photographer or interning as a photographer's assistant

  • Working in a camera store

  • Setting up a darkroom

  • Creating a yearbook for a school or co-op

  • Working with a blogger to communicate content visually

  • Learning mounting techniques.

For learners who appreciate the power of a story, these Living Books may be just the ingredient to bring additional life to the course. 

  • Cameras and Courage, Margaret Bourke-White by Iris Noble, Julian Messner biography

  • Joseph Pulitzer, Front Page Pioneer by Iris Noble, Julian Messner biography

My daughter's interest led to elective credits, not one but TWO! When she finished these studies, she decided to take an online course. 

Once the interest is sparked, there is no limit to where the learning path may lead. Sometimes it is an elective. Other times the study leads to employment. The possibilities of high school electives is endless! 

If you will be attending Florida Parent Educators Association (FPEA) conference May 25-27, you may be interested in the two high school workshops I have been invited to share: Keeping High School ALIVE with Living Books and High School: Mission Possible. In addition, my husband Mike will join me at the podium to share The Real-Life Influence of Family Conversation and my oldest son and I will present an encouraging session, Thank You, Mom!

FPEA is always a highlight of our speaking calendar. Can't wait to see you there! 

 

 

 

 

Living Books in High School

When we started our homeschooling high school journey in 2003, I was determined not to leave the learning power of Living Books behind in the elementary and middle school years. 

Living Books belong in high school!

While preparing a workshop I will present at the 2017 FPEA Convention, May 25-27, I decided to give Celebrate Simple readers some quick ideas we used as we incorporated Living Books into high school course content. Our high school learners were greatly impacted by the Living Books they chose. In fact, several titles greatly impacted career choices and life goals.

livingbooks11.jpg

When we began our high school journey, the first content area in which we incorporated Living Books was history. This seemed a natural choice since we had been using Living Books--biographies, autobiographies, and historical fiction--to accent our history studies in the elementary and middle school years. 

Adding Living Books to our science studies was also a natural fit, especially for learners who had interest in specialty areas or who wanted to dig deeper to learn more about scientists and inventors. As our young adults advanced through the high school years, we branched out into adult and college level materials. 

Reaching our creatives with written materials was a challenge at times, unless the reading was related their artistic gifting or interest. If you find yourself in that quandary, know that you are not alone and that your efforts are worth the time spent trying to find them great, applicable reads.

And, I had to let go of my more rigid definition of what a Living Book was in order to be open to the plethora of possibilities I would  have otherwise discounted.

The power of the story--not my definition of Living Book--impacted the life of the reader. 

What about an athlete who loves to read? How can Living Books be interwoven in a personal fitness or weight training course? And, what about an athlete who would rather play ball than read?

Living Books have the power to pull in even the most reluctant reader! 

Living Books can give life to any subject, if we allow them the opportunity to do so. Recently, one daughter began to lean toward personal growth and leadership materials, while another continued on her pursuit of all things medical. Why not include Living Books in that area, too!

If you are in Orlando over Memorial Day weekend, I would love for you to join me in my workshop, Keeping High School Alive with Living Books, at the FPEA Convention. This workshop will offer insight as to how Living Books bring high school studies to life and influence choices learners make beyond the tassel turning. The workshop will be packed with specific ideas in regards course content, book titles, and life-learning experiences. Hope to see you there! 

 

 

Most Popular Posts of 2016

2016 is marked as significant.

Why? Because every moment of our days mattered--the triumphs and the trials. We lived and learned together being intentional about using what was real and relational--from cradle to shingle--toddler to adult. Thank you for walking that journey alongside us! We are grateful for you, our readers! 

As a recap of our year together, I compiled our top 15 posts of 2016. ENJOY! 

 

The Many Possibilities of High School Success

Just as there are many potential pathways to successfully completing high school--the end result of helping a young adult develop his or her divinely-created strengths and giftings--there are also many different avenues to the young adult's future; the years beyond the turning of the tassel.

If you enjoyed this post, you might also be encouraged by Real-Life for High School Credit: Care and Concerns for the Elderly.


Preschooling, Naturally

Preschool is foundational for life and learning. In fact, it is during the preschool years that little learners master foundational skills which serve as a base for later learning. More importantly, attitudes and temperaments toward learning are set during the preschool and early elementary years.

If you enjoyed this post, you might also be encouraged by "Let Me Do It!" Helping Little Learners Become Independent


5 Comments I Don't Regret

Words are remembered, taken with us through our days. This is true for us and it is true for our children and young adults.

If you found this post helpful, you might also enjoy Legacy: Learning Alongside


The Possibilities of Elective Credits - Part II

When I wrote the first edition (who remembers that first spiral-bound resource?) Celebrate High School I included a sample list of potential course titles--both core and elective. When I published my extensive revision in 2015, I expanded my list based on our experience and the experience of those with whom we work.

If the information in this post was helpful, you might want to continue on and read Part III.


32 Ways to Learn from Real and Relational 

Some of my children love making lapbooks, others prefer unit studies. Still others learn best when we incorporate field trips into our days. And, our middle and high school young adults? They have learned at co-ops, through online courses, and with personal independent study. 

If you are being intentional about keeping learning real and relational, you might also be encouraged by the practical life lessons (and history!) in this post-- Living History: 30 Questions that Bring History to Life


8 Skills Children Practice in Puddles

There was much to learn in the puddles. Each learner carried a small fish net, sand bucket or shovel. They were off on an adventure.

Rainy days are natural wonders which intrique little learners. If rain is falling at your house and you are waiting for a safe pause in weather, try this indoor art activity--Torn Paper Rainbows


Grades...In High School

"How do I give grades in high school?"

If designing a transcript is your next step, this post may be helpful--Transcript Matters


Using 4-H for High School Course Content

"Our high school learner is very active in 4-H. Can we use any of what the student is doing toward high school credit?" 

If you have middle school learners and are wondering how you can help them manage time, organize belongings, and pursue interests, this post--Magnificent, Make-A-Difference Middle School--might be helpful. 


Preschooling, Intentionally

Learning is the natural outcome of everyday living, especially for little learners. With a few intentional questions here and a purposeful explanation there, preschoolers can learn naturally from walking alongside older siblings and significant adults. Through everyday experiences, preschoolers gain a jump start to mastering foundational cognitive, social, emotional, physical, and spiritual life skills.  By the time the young learner blows out six candles on the birthday cake, significant progress toward mastery of foundational skills has likely been made.

If you are seeking ways to help your little learners do what they can, 3 Things They Can DO on Their Own, might be helpful. 


Living Books and Independent Studies

An interest evolved into an independent study, a year-long learning adventure. 

Science--especially animal science--is particularly interesting to little learners. If you have little learners with a zest for all things living, check out the book list in Vintage Science Readers for the WIN! 


Nature Adventures Made EASY- A Glimpse into Part of Our Day

Ten minutes later, peering out the bedroom window to check on the adventure, my heart smiled--three little learners discovering, wondering together. Co-laboring in learning. 

Looking for a way to learn math outdoors, in nature, where children crave? Check out Math Adventures!


Using Living Books in High School for Credit

We have used several approaches to formulating classes based on strengths, interests and the future plans of the young adult.

Interested in earning credit for writing college essays? This post--High School Made Simple: College Essays for Credit--might offer some insight. 


SIMPLE Prepositions for Little Learners

Keeping early learning active and fun!

Picture books can encourage learning. Read Aloud to Foster Counting Skills lists some of our favorite math picture books. 


Intentional Cursive Handwriting

Oh yes, there is good reason to teach cursive, teaching correct strokes and rotations. Proper letter formation does make composition easier. However, once initial instruction is complete and letters are formed properly, practice begins. Practice.

Interested in hands-on, real-life, spelling activities? This post--What About Spelling?--has lots of practical ideas. 


Helping Learners Foster Strengths and Interests

A trip to the electronics store. I was hoping to go alone. You know, time to enjoy quiet; time to think without questions. After all, it is ONLY the electronics store. 

If this post made you curious about interest-based learning, The Benefits of Interests: Motivating Learners, may answer a few more questions. 

Want to know more about how your days can be intentional, real, and relational? Click below to sign up for the Celebrate Simple Newsletter. 

The Many Possibilities of High School Success

Tis'  the season for future thinking and college applications.

This season can also be a season of disappointment and frustration.

Seeing Facebook posts of acceptance letters and appointments, I can’t help but think of the high school young adults pondering a future which doesn’t include dorm room decorating and walk-on athletics. These young adults--though they may have worked very hard--may feel unsuccessful, even second-class due to the individuality of their next steps toward the future. Hence this season—a season most people associate with celebrations—can be time of awkwardness and discouragement.

But it doesn't have to be!

possibilities.jpg

When we open our eyes and hearts to other possibilities--alternative, but no less significantly successful high school journeys and culminating celebrations--young adults have innumerable opportunities which may be better suited to their strengths and giftings.

Acceptance letters are not the sole means of successful transition to a young adult's future. 

Just as there are many potential pathways to successfully completing high school--the end result of helping a young adult develop his or her divinely-created strengths and giftings--there are also many different avenues to the young adult's future; the years beyond the turning of the tassel.

The Scholar. Scholars are not just learners; they are specialists--continually seeking to dig deeper in a specific area of interest. There is an aptitude for learning and time is made for accelerated or advanced degrees. In addition to researching and fulfilling the college entrance requirements for the young adult's top university choices, honors courses, dual enrollment, CLEP/DANTE/AP testing, and discussions or networking with professionals in the field of interests may also be helpful. 

The Entrepreneur. Ideas. Strategy. Product analysis. These young adults grew up dreaming of starting a business and in fact may have started one or several during the middle or high school years. Young entrepreneurs may benefit from connecting with successful entrepreneurs as well as with other entrepreneurial-minded peers. In addition, these young adults may spend time at the library or online reading current issues of business magazines-- Inc., Entrepreneur, or Fast Company--or reading small business blogs. Consider looking for local opportunities where the entrepreneur might be able to attend small business seminars or entrepreneurial events.  Job shadowing a business owner or two might be another consideration as well as offering time in the day for the young adult to research successful business practices, managerial/leadership qualities, and marketing or growth strategies. Some high school learners find having a mentor helpful. Having had two entrepreneurial/business-minded young adults, these were helpful resources for our learners. Entrepreneurs may or may not decide to pursue post-secondary education. 

The Athlete. Most little leaguers dream of the big leagues--the pinnacle of achievement for athletes. In fact, we've known athletes who played through elementary and travel sports to high school athletics hoping to fulfill this dream. Some athletes indeed did move on to more competitive collegiate play. Others decided to hang up the cleats after their senior year. For young adults who desire to pursue sports after high school graduation, special attention to the new NCAA requirements is a must. Though an athlete may choose a college outside the NCAA, staying up-to-date is wise. Plans change, sometimes last minute and eligibility is dependent on completion of specific courses. Having had three athletes, we never wanted to short change a student-athlete. In fact, all three took different paths; none ended up playing collegiate sports.  In addition to action on the field, we have known learners who read autobiogrpaphies and biographies of athletes they admire for high school credit. Possibilities include A Life Well-Played (Arnold Palmer), Through My Eyes (Tim Tebow), Out of the Blue (Orel Hershiser). One of our athletes enjoyed Between the Lines: Nine Principles to Live By and The Mental Game of Baseball.

The Creative. Creatives see the world differently--in words, colors, graphics, texture, line, or shapes. These young adults think outside the box and craft from incredible minds. Hence, their paths through high school might include preparing a portfolio, building a client list, visiting studios and exhibitions, experimenting with media, shooting thirds for a photographer, writing copy for publication, working at a hobby shop, creating art for a gallery, volunteering time to create graphics for church media or publication, or selling stock photography. All of these experiences may become part of their high school course work, and the contacts them make along the journey may provide avenues for employment after graduation. The Creative may decide to attend an art or music school, open a studio, spend time with a master artisan, or start a business. Many of these experiences make great activities for elective credits. Post-secondary educational experience may or may not be part of the Creative's future. 

The Apprentice. Apprenticeships offer hands-on, experiential options to young adults who need to learn from masters or professionals in a field of interest. Though apprenticeships are not as popular as they were years ago, apprenticeships offer on-the-job training--and often some classroom instruction--for young adults interested in highly skilled work in healthcare professions, engineering, manufacturing, culinary arts, telecommunications, trades (welding, electrical, carpentry, plumbing), and service careers. The apprentice may train under a skilled craftsman, trained healthcare worker, or licensed professional to learn essential skills important to a particular job. Time devoted to apprenticing can vary to up to four years. Some apprenticeships may require certain math and science high school course work or required scores on HSPE (High School Proficiency Exams). 

The Intern. Internships are an excellent means by which young adults can investigate career fields of interest and learn new skills. Internships can be formal or informal, part-time or full time, paid or unpaid, but are generally offered by an employer or institution for a specific amount of time. Most are considered entry level. Although university internships were traditionally offered to undergrad or grad students, there are colleges who open internships to high school students. Research the availability at local universities, as this is a growing trend. For a hands-on, experiential learner, an internship might be an excellent next step. If interning seems like a good fit for your young adult, consider the points made in this US News and World Report article

There is great possibility several paths and means will overlap. For example, the Creative may also be the Intern, learning alongside or assisting a concert musician, graphic artist, or professional photographer. And, the Intern may also be the Scholar, gaining cutting-edge skill in a science or engineering field. 

Remember, these are not the only possibilities for today's young adults. Just as all young adults are unique, so will be their high school paths and future plans. Not every high schooler will follow the same learning route, nor will they have the same next right steps. With a changing economy, growing knowledge base, and evolving ability for satellite employment, there are ever-growing career opportunities. 

I wonder what those will be for our young adults?  

 

This blog post is intended to offer an example of personal experience. It is in no way intended to be legal advice and should not be taken as such. Parents own the sole responsibility for the training and education of their children. 

The Possibilities of Elective Credits: Part III

How are elective credits documented?

The answer to this question depends on your state's home education law as well as what college or university choices find their way on your learner's "top ten" list. Your family's record keeping methods will also factor into answering this question. This was definitely the case for our family.

For our family, if a learner has a distinctive interest or an extraordinary gifting--something they naturally spend a good amount of time researching and learning (for us 75 hours for a half credit and 120+ hours for a full credit)--we count if for credit. I personally do not label or flag courses as core or elective on our transcripts (I do however flag dual enrollment, CLEP, or courses taken at other accredited entities). Too many colleges access transcripts differently to flag core and elective courses. What one considers a core course, an academic elective, or an elective another will classify differently. 

As a learner is actively involved in the the learning process, I keep a bullet point list of the concepts learned or experiences completed on a digital document. From that bullet list, I can write an accurate title and course description should we need it for university admission or scholarship applications. Once the course is complete, I add the title, grades, and credit to the transcript--a one-page snapshot of the young adults academic record.

Elective courses often set one young adult learner apart from another, especially if potential applicants have similar, cookie-cutter type elective credits. 

What strengths, interests, or giftings do your learners have which might equate to credit. Some of the courses our learners have completed include Care and Concerns of the Elderly; Drafting and Drawing; Competitive Gaming; Business and Entrepreneurial Principles; Introduction to Early Childhood Education; Nutrition and Health for Disease Prevention; and Interpersonal Relationships. These off-the-beaten-path have proven to give our now adult children life skills they may not have received otherwise. 


Life skills + high school electives = WIN! for preparation beyond the turning of the tassel


 

This blog post is intended to offer an example of personal experience. It is in no way intended to be legal advice and should not be taken as such. Parents own the sole responsibility for the training and education of their children. 

The Possibilities of Elective Credits: Part II

In Part 1, I offered helpful tips about finding and recording elective credits. 

Perhaps that post prompted another question,

"What are some common titles for elective credit in high school?"

Before considering titling, one must understand the difference between core and elective courses. In addition, understand that these are terms used in the educational world. As home educators, it has helpful for us to understand "education-eze" as well as what is and isn't required by our state statutes. It has been equally helpful to know that colleges use "education-eze". Though some colleges and universities are hiring home education admission personnel, some admission advisers at other institutions are not always versed in the statute requirements.

Common terminology includes:

Core courses are courses which must be taken or are required for graduation. Typically, core courses are English, math, social science, and natural sciences. In addition, some schools will require additional credit--in addition to the core content areas--to be taken in world languages, the arts, computer science, and physical education. 

Electives are courses students chose to take. Electives allow a learner to customize his or her education, to build on a strength or interest, or to investigate content not yet studied in other courses. It is the elective courses which often strengthen the high school transcript and round out the student while also telling employers and admissions about the interests and strengths of the learners.

Some educational entities use the term academic electives for admissions. An academic elective is a core course taken above and beyond the required academic courses in that discipline. For example, if a leaner completes the three math courses required for graduation (or admission) in the mathematics core academic area--let's say Algebra I, Geometry, and Algebra II--but decides to take another academic math course from the core choices--Trigonometry--the fourth course could be considered an academic elective, if the educational venue recognizes academic electives. 

When I wrote the first edition (who remembers that first spiral-bound resource?) Celebrate High School I included a sample list of potential course titles--both core and elective. When I published my extensive revision in 2015, I expanded my list based on our experience and the experience of those with whom we work. For this post, I am pulling potential elective course titles from that 2015 revised list. I am NOT including courses most often considered core academics--for example, Calculus or British Literature--though those core courses could be used as electives--and often are by home educating families. 

English electives (when not considered part of the core content English I, English II, English III, and English IV)

  • Shakespearean Theater
  • Greco-Roman Theater
  • Short Stories
  • Poetry (perhaps of a specific historical era)
  • Writing for Print and Publication
  • Creative Writing
  • Yearbook
  • Digital Publishing
  • Ancient Languages
  • Biblical Studies: Old Testament
  • Biblical Studies: New Testament

Communication electives

  • Speech (this course is often considered a core course for some schools but an elective for others)
  • Competitive Speech
  • Impromptu Speech
  • Expository Speech
  • Policy Debate
  • Lincoln Douglas Debate
  • Media Productions

Mathematics electives

  • Personal Finance (this course is often considered a required course for some schools but an elective for others)

Social Science electives

  • Comparative Government
  • Introduction to Law
  • Mock Trial
  • Constitutional Law
  • Independent Study: Foreign Policy
  • Introduction to Criminal Justice
  • Psychology (this course is often considered a core course for some schools but an elective for others)
  • Sociology
  • Anthropology
  • Archaeology
  • Family and Consumer Science 
  • Contemporary World Issues
  • Ancient Civilizations
  • Independent Study: The Korean War
  • Medieval History
  • Introduction to Social Work
  • Child and Adolescent Psychology
  • Philosophy
  • World Religions
  • Theology
  • Church History
  • Internship: Youth Ministry

Natural Science electives

  • Environmental Science
  • Animal and Agricultural Sciences
  • Introduction to Agriscience
  • Equine Science
  • Equine Medicine
  • Introduction to Veterinary Science
  • Introduction to Forestry
  • Botany
  • Entomology
  • Zoology
  • Astronomy
  • Introduction Aerospace Science
  • Forensics
  • Introduction to Health Sciences

Performing/Fine Arts electives

  • Introduction to Drama
  • Musical Theater
  • Art History (perhaps add a historical era)
  • Art Appreciation
  • Choreography
  • Dance Technique (consecutive years: Intermediate and Advanced)
  • Competitive Dance
  • Introduction to Ball Room Dance
  • Stagecraft
  • Set Design
  • Theater Production
  • Two-Dimensional Art
  • Three-Dimensional Art
  • Sculpture
  • Ceramics
  • Drawing and Painting
  • Cartooning and Caricature
  • Printmaking
  • Pottery
  • Creative Photography
  • Digital Photography
  • Band
  • Orchestra
  • Symphonic Band
  •  Wind Ensemble
  • Jazz Ensemble
  • Keyboard
  • Piano
  • Music Theory (consecutive years: Intermediate and Advanced)
  • Music History (perhaps add a historical era)
  • Music Appreciation

Physical Education electives

  • Personal Fitness (this course is often considered a required course for some schools but an elective for others)
  • Nutrition and Wellness
  • Physical Education  (this course is often considered a required course for some schools but an elective for others)
  • Aerobics (consecutive years: Intermediate and Advanced)
  • Tennis
  • Golf
  • Volleyball
  • Competitive Swimming
  • Water Polo
  • Lifesaving
  • Advanced Lifesaving
  • Team Sports
  • Recreational Sports
  • Beginning Weights (consecutive years: Intermediate and Advanced)
  • Weight Training (often accompanies sports training) 
  • Sports Psychology
  • Introduction to Sports Medicine
  • Care and Prevention of Athletic Injuries
  • Sports Rehabilitation

Business Education electives

  • Accounting
  • Marketing 
  • Advertising and Sales
  • Principles of Entrepreneurship
  • Banking and Finance
  • Business Principles
  • Foundational Principles of Small Business
  • Business Technology

Computer Science electives

  • Computer Fundamentals
  • Programming (consecutive courses: Programming I, Programming II)
  • Introduction to Computer Systems
  • Computer Construction and Repair
  • Keyboarding
  • Word Processing
  • Graphic Design
  • Digital Design
  • Web Design
  • Digital Arts
  • Computer Gaming 

Home Economics electives

  • Fashion Design
  • Textiles and Fabrics
  • Clothing Construction and Textiles
  • Machine Sewing
  • Quilting and Applique
  • Interior Design
  • Introduction to Early Childhood Education
  • Nutrition
  • Principles in Food Preparation
  • Principles in Food Preparation: Pastry
  • Principles in Food Preparation: Desserts
  • Principles in Food Preparation: Main Courses
  • Principles in Food Preparation: Appetizers
  • Introduction to Culinary Arts
  • Introduction to Pastry
  • Cake Decorating
  • Home and Automotive Repair
  • First Aid and CPR
  • Emergency Preparedness

Vocational electives

  • Cosmetology
  • Cabinet Making
  • Carpentry
  • Trim and Finish Carpentry
  • Masonry
  • Landscaping
  • Horticulture
  • Floral Design
  • Landscape Architecture
  • Building Design and Architecture
  • Drafting
  • Technical Drawing
  • Plumbing
  • Welding
  • Auto Mechanics
  • Diesel Mechanics
  • Small Engine Repair
  • Electronics and Circuitry 

When our young adults are reading, working on research, studying content, or participating in an experiential opportunity, I search for potential titles in the course codes for our state. If I can't find a title or course content in that resource which is close to what our learners are studying, I search for high school courses (or in some cases college courses) from across the nation. Those resources usually allow me to find a title--or at least give me a springboard--which accurately describes the content being learned. 

Needing to know more about documenting elective credit work for college admission paperwork? Check out part 3. 


 

This blog post is intended to offer an example of personal experience. It is in no way intended to be legal advice and should not be taken as such. Parents own the sole responsibility for the training and education of their children. 

 

 

Course Descriptions- To Write or Not to Write

I have been following and actively researching homeschooling in the high school years for over 15 years. Some trends have remained the same. Others have changed. 

Course descriptions have definitely been one of those trends. 

When I came into the high school years, the majority of parents were writing course descriptions of some kind depending on the university to which a young adult was applying. 

There are several reasons why less parents are having to spent time documenting textbook titles, course content, evaluation methods, and the like. 

In our geographical area (some trends are geographical), more students are choosing to dual enroll and then continue at the community or state college until the AA is earned. In many cases, that AA offers students a direct connection to an in-state, four-year university. When the AA or AS is earned, usually the only documentation needed from high school is the final transcript, if anything. In some situations, AAs are even providing a direct connection to some out-of-state colleges.

In fact, students who chose to dual enroll and finish the AA or AS are likely not to need the course descriptions.

For example, my first grad went to a four-year college. Some of the colleges--especially highly selective universities--required course descriptions. Others did not. 

My second graduate dual enrolled while in high school and then applied to stay on and finish the AA. The application process was a piece of cake. Only a final high school transcript was required. No course descriptions. 

My two current high schoolers, one a senior, may need a combination based on the top colleges of their choice. In preparation, just in case, I am keeping bullet points of the highlights of the less traditional courses as well as titles, authors and publishers of textbooks and resources. If needed, my bullet points will become sentences to create the course descriptions. 


The current trend for course descriptions is college specific. 


Hence, some parents are choosing to take a "wait-and-see-approach and are not worried about pulling all nighters should their young adults need documentation.

Keep in mind, if the home-educated student is an athlete considering collegiate sports, there is some specific course documentation needed for the NCAA. You can find that information here

A sampling of colleges still requiring course description or some type of course documentation include:  

Amherst College, Amherst, MA

Emory, Atlanta, GA

Indiana University, Bloomington, IN

Oblerin College and Conservatory, Oblerin, OH

Olgethorpe University, Atlanta, GA

Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA

Rice University, Houston, TX

Tulane University, New Orleans, LA

University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC

University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA

Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 

This is only a sampling! Parents and young adults must take the responsibility of researching the requirements of the colleges of interest. Check the admission requirements of the student's colleges of choice. If course descriptions or other documentation is required, plot your plan of action. If that plan includes writing course descriptions, check out this post. 

This blog post is intended to offer an example of personal experience. It is in no way intended to be legal advice and should not be taken as such. Parents own the sole responsibility for the training and education of their children. 

 

 

Real-Life for High School Credit- Care and Concerns of the Elderly

Have you ever been through a tough season, a season when you wonder if anyone learned anything?

I have. More than once. 

About three years ago--from January to May--we helped care for and love my grandmother in the last months of her life. I don't regret one day, one minute of how we chose to spend our time. We made wonderful memories with Grams during that time, memories our family relives and smiles over--all of us. But, it wasn't an easy time.

The six months prior, found us spending many hours touring assisted living facilities and government-subsidized care units. There were meetings with social workers and property managers. My high school learner asked if she could be included in the tours and meetings. 

At first, I wondered how she could accompany me and complete her scheduled course work. 

After a few conversations, Mike and I decided there was great value in our high schooler participating in the meetings, discussions, and comparisons. After all, she may be able to add a perspective my mom and I--being very close to the circumstances--might not be able to see. In addition, she was a consumer and might one day be faced with similar decisions. 

I was worried our daughter wouldn't be able to make visits and meetings with us and get her planned work completed. I was fearful and tentative. However, Mike and I decided there was life value to this season. 

Our high schooler would accompany my mom and I. 

Fast forward to the end of May.

After some really difficult months, Grandma passed away. Being the end of May, I was compiling work samples for our year end evaluations and updating my high schooler's transcript. In the process, I asked our daughter to look over the transcript and her portfolio of work samples to determine if I had missed any significant work she had completed--especially independent studies--while my mind was preoccupied with Grandma. 

Her response surprised me. 

"Couldn't I get credit for all I learned while helping with Grammy?"

I answered with a question. 

"What do you think you learned?"

I was astounded by her answers. 

Here are the highlights:

  • Medical care terminology 
  • Implications of elderly care, physically as well as psychologically
  • Family care of the elderly
  • Levels of care matter and costs associated with that care
  • Comparing and contrasting residential services and their differences: nursing facility, assisted living, retirement community, memory care
  • Levels of home care and the services rendered
  • Meal preparation, offerings, presentation, individualization of services in different facilities
  • Physical, emotional and spiritual care concerns at facilities
  • Support care for family, if offered
  • Comparison and contrast of social and group activities in facilities
  • Nursing qualifications at each facility-  RN, LPN, CNA
  • Staff to patient ratios
  • Emergency response systems and their importance
  • Financial options and obligations
  • Hospice and end of life procedures, care, and considerations

We talked for thirty minutes (at least) about all she had learned and experienced, first-hand, experientially. Not only had our daughter interacted with--playing games, conversing, and caring for--Grammy and other residents several times a week for several months, but she had also made visits to seven facilities and compared the offerings, care, staff qualifications, and financial costs of each. She helped us research at home and we brainstormed questions we would ask at each meeting. 

When our daughter visited with us, she asked questions and held conversations with staff, helping us understand the pros and cons of each location. Near the end of Grammy's life our daughter visited three hospice care facilities and listened to three presentations regarding choices we would have to make as a family. In addition, she observed how people processed Grammy's declining health and eventually her passing--from my parents to her youngest siblings--as we visited, asked questions, processed grief together. 

I couldn't believe what our daughter had learned! None of it was planned. And, I almost missed an opportunity to use her interest--a real-life situation--as a catalyst for learning. 

My daughter wanted to be an active participant of this season in our lives, and it was some of the most valuable learning she could have done that year. 

Could she earn credit for all she had learned? 

In our state, that final answer rests with Mike and I. We confer the credit. we sign the transcript. This is not the case for all states, so research is essential in regards to state requirements.

I also had to determine in my mind--really Mike and I together--whether I could feel confident in the credit we were giving. Would I--or my daughter should she be asked to explain her course work in an essay or interview--be able to substantiate what our daughter had learned? Did I feel the content was high school level or higher?

After researching high school courses (there really weren't but one or two) and content of college credit offerings (this was more helpful) as well as asking questions of professionals in the field, we decided to give our daughter one-half credit for her learning and experience. 

For readers with young adults interested in this field, in my research I learned the Red Cross has a family care-giver course. 

To document the content covered, should our daughter need it for college admission, I wrote the following course description of what she learned


Cares and Concerns of the Elderly

This experiential study was initiated by the student as a result of the direct care and concern of her ninety-five year old great-grandmother and her health and care needs during the last nine months of her life. The student interacted with elderly patients at in-patient care centers several times a week. One visit included making and delivering Christmas cards. During the student's visits she served cake and punch at a birthday party, helped residents participate in an Easter egg hunt, escorted patients through a nature garden, played card and board games with patients, and sang Christmas carols with a group of parents and students. As the great-grandmother required complete care, the student researched, visited, and compared nursing care and living accommodations at three local assisted living facilities and three hospice care units, participating in discussions of how to match patient needs with patient care. The student also participated in discussions about blood transfusions, intravenous nutrition, end-of-life care, death, and the grieving process. 


What real-life circumstances is your young adult facing? Do these experiences include internships, community opportunities, or apprenticeships? Do these circumstances or experiences provide high school level (or higher) instruction or content? 

Perhaps your young adult is experiencing something extra-ordinary, something which will impact life--and other people--far beyond the high school years. There may be job shadowing, internships, community opportunities, or apprenticeships involved in the learning. Lives might be changing because of your young adult's learning experience.

Might you consider what those experiences are, how they are impacting lives, and how might they equate to credit? 

 

This blog post is intended to offer an example of personal experience. It is in no way intended to be legal advice and should not be taken as such. Parents own the sole responsibility for the training and education of their children. 

Foreign Language in High School: Which Language?

In part I of this series we discussed what homeschoolers need to know about foreign language. 

In part II I offered common questions homeschoolers may need to ask. 

In this final part of the series, I will offer insights on how to determine what language to pursue. Again, understand all young adult's, their calling, and their career goals are unique. Not all of these tips will apply to every student and there are likely some you will uncover as you research and walk the journey with your young adult. 

Why do some colleges require more than one year of language? This is a great question! Highly-selective schools will require or recommend more years of language for their applicants. Part of the reason colleges seek more than one year of a foreign language is an understanding that the first year of foreign language is foundational, introductory work. The second, third, and fourth years generally dig deep into advanced conversation, writing, and even analysis. Of course, there are always exceptions to this thought. 

Can the student switch language course of study? Most colleges want two, three, or even four years of language study, often in the same language. Sometimes, however, students will complete one year of one language and then switch to another language. This is usually acceptable IF the student then continues at least two consecutive years (some college prefer three) in the same language. Again, this is an area which is often university specific, so ask questions as early as possible. 

Do colleges have a preference as to what languages are taken? In our experiences, most colleges have no requirements as to which languages they prefer students take. Again, there may be a rare situation out there somewhere, so do your homework! 

Are there expectations as to content of foreign language courses? Colleges know languages are hard. That is part of the reason they require language study. Colleges also expect comprehensive course content. 

What are some factors which could be considered as a student decides which language to pursue? Students who know what career field they want to enter should consider a language which would be beneficial to their future. For example, a student who wants to teach English in a Germany may consider taking a few years of German language. Foreign language is particularly  beneficial to students who plan to work in international banking, law, telecommunications, travel, government, to name a few. With more an more careers spanning the global market, language could be a definite asset. Other common factors in determining which languages students may pursue are future travel plans, family heritage, or personal interest. 

If a student is considering several languages and trying to determine which might be the best choice, consider visiting ethnic restaurants, borrowing foreign language how-to courses from the library, or spending time with people who speak the languages of interest. Or, travel either for pleasure or missions. Being immersed in a language may help with the decision of which language to pursue. 

As the student is choosing which language to study, he or she may need to be reminded that study may become (and often does become) difficult. Learning a language can be hard. In the challenging times, we have had to remind our young adults of the bigger picture. The bigger picture, the goal, often helped our students hurdle temporary difficulties. 

I hope this series has been helpful to you and offered some points to consider as you help your young adult successfully navigate the foreign language trek. 

 

This blog post is intended to offer an example of personal experience. It is in no way intended to be legal advice and should not be taken as such. Parents own the sole responsibility for the training and education of their children. 

 

 

 

Foreign Language in High School: Questions YOU Need to Ask

In Part I, I shared common concerns homeschooling parents have in regards to high school foreign language requirements. 

We learned what questions we might need to ask as we walked the foreign language journey. In fact, when our family began researching foreign language possibilities twelve years ago,  we knew nothing about what questions to ask or to whom we should ask our questions.

Our journey was hands-on and experiential--just like yours--meaning we learned by walking through the experience and making mistakes.

In this post, I hope you can learn--not only from our experiences--but the experiences of hundreds of families with whom we have encouraged. These are only samples of the questions YOU may find necessary to ask dependent upon your unique situation. 

The foreign language journey with our first was fairly uneventful. Four of his five top university choices required two consecutive years of the same foreign language. By making sure he completed two years of the same language we would meet the requirements of every school in which he was interested. 

It is also helpful to know that our son did not want to dual enroll, so that was not an option. Therefore, we researched every other potential avenue. In the end, he simply completed two years of Spanish with FLVS, an online public school.

During his senior year, he applied to six colleges in total, all required two years of the same language. In the end, he chose a local four-year university honors college. At the end of his senior year, the university requested I send the final copy of his parent-generated transcript. 

Two weeks later, I received a letter in the mail. 

"Your high school foreign language credits have been verified from a valid source. We have waived the undergraduate foreign language graduation requirements."

Fantastic! We didn't see this coming. Of all the homeschooling high school meetings and conference workshops I had attended, no one had ever mentioned there was a potential for a college to use the earned high school foreign language credits to fulfill undergraduate requirements (outside of dual enrollment). We were pleasantly surprised and grateful!

Lesson learned: High school foreign language courses may be used to fulfill the undergraduate foreign language requirement IF the courses are taken from an entity approved by the college. 

Ask: From what entity could a student take foreign language and earn both high school and undergraduate college foreign language credit, aside from dual enrollment?

From our lesson with the first grad, our second son charted an intentional plan. Knowing university language courses can be more difficult due to depth of subject and amount of content covered in each class, we brainstormed with our young adult potential language options. He chose to follow the same path as his brother and take two years with the public online school. When he applied to attend a local state college, the admissions department asked for verification (transcript from the online school) that the foreign language was completed. They waived the foreign language requirement for his AA. Yes!

Interestingly, once our son earned his AA and continued seamlessly to the four-year university for the completion of his Bachelors degree (the same one from which our first graduated), I received a letter in the mail. 

"Please submit the final high school transcript so that we may verify completion of high school foreign language."

Our second son had his AA and BS foreign language requirements waived because we had taken the foreign language from a source each school considered valid. 

Side note here for those who wonder if the high school transcript is ever needed after earning an AA. In some cases (like this one), YES! 

When our third high schooler began to consider foreign languages, knowing what we experienced with the first two graduates, her primary consideration...get it done in high school!

She, however, had an interest in American Sign Language. We had to look for an entity where she could learn ASL fluently.  Interestingly, as we were deciding next steps, an email came from a friend, a certified interpreter, who was offering ASL 1 the coming year. I knew from research some universities won't recognize ASL as a foreign language. If they did recognize ASL as a language, they may not accept the means by which it would be taught.

As a mom, knowing what my daughter might face, I was hesitant to let her pursue this interest. 

Yet, I knew ASL was a genuine interest and I wanted my daughter to have an opportunity to learn a language that mattered to her. We researched. I connected with one college asking if they would accept ASL as a foreign language. Indeed, the college verified in writing via email that they would accept the ASL. My daughter took the class, realizing that though one college of choice accepted the credit, another may not. They would not, however, used her ASL course to fulfill the university foreign language requirement for her undergraduate degree. 

But remember, every situation is unique and individual depended upon the career and college choices. For example, last week, a family contacted me with a similar situation. A homeschooled high schooler had actively participated in the deaf ministry at their church where the student interacted and communicated with attendees who were deaf. Other studies were completed. The local state college told the family the student's studies would not likely be accepted for credit. 

Again, what one college deems acceptable for foreign language, another may not. Ask questions. 

What about learning challenges?

A student  we know sought accommodations for learning challenges. The student was eager to attend college, however knew accommodations would be needed to be successful. The educational psychologist recommended the student, due to the significant learning challenges--dyslexia and dysgraphia--should be allowed to take a substitute course for foreign language.  

Research and testing--on adult scales which most college require--provided information regarding documented learning challenges and foreign languages. In regards to significant learning disabilities and current, accurate documentation, some colleges may waive or offer substitute courses toward foreign language requirements. This is not true of all schools and is highly variable school to school. Therefore, parents must inquire and must be able to provide psychological reports as needed. 

Ask: Are college admission foreign language requirements waived--or are substitute courses accepted--for students with documented learning disabilities (on adult scales)? 

When we began our high school journey we had no idea what foreign language questions to ask. In most cases, we learned along the way, either by personal experience or the experience of families with whom we work closely. 

And, with two current high schoolers (and several on behind) we are likely to learn even more.

Do you have experience with high school foreign languages which my help readers? Please share in the comments.  

Up next, Part III.

 

This blog post is intended to offer an example of personal experience. It is in no way intended to be legal advice and should not be taken as such. Parents own the sole responsibility for the training and education of their children. 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Foreign Language in High School: What Homeschoolers Need to Know

I spoke to another group of parents home educating their high school young adults. 

One of the questions I am asked most often is,

"What about foreign languages?"

This is tough question to answer. There are many factors, perspectives, and varied college requirements.

Considering why a language is being pursued is essential. Motivation is important. Oh yes, I know we all have to do things we don't like--and that may include learning a language--however, motivation remains a prominent factor in learning and retention for any subject. In the case of world languages (the new term often used for foreign languages), a student motivated to learn a language due to interest or as a means to an end goal (desiring to apply to a specific university), will be more likely to stay the course (with limited nagging and fighting). In the case of foreign languages, staying the course (no pun intended) may mean TWO YEARS or MORE of study in one language. Most young adults--and we've worked with many--couldn't achieve this goal without some type of personal motivation...because learning a language is hard!

Knowing the college admission requirements may answer the question for you. Not all colleges require foreign language for admission. Check college websites for admission requirements. Knowing whether or not language is required may help alleviate unnecessary aggravation and stress and most importantly, preserve a relationship. In part 2, I will dig into another factor to this equation. Consider:

Asking important questions may help. Knowing a college requires foreign language for admission is not enough. Unfortunately, some colleges will not accept foreign language credits if they are completed with certain curricula. Or, they may accept the credits only if a student passes (or gets a certain score) an entrance exam, SAT II Subject Test, CLEP, or AP exam. The only way to know what the college will accept is to ask. Don't assume or fear the worse, even if your friend told you their experience with a particular school. Always ask the source and get it in writing if necessary.

Learning a language is difficult. It will take work, unless a student has a natural gifting for linguistics. In twenty-four years of seeing hundreds of families, many children and young adults have had to work fairly hard to complete two years in the same language. 

Counting the cost is wise. All four of our high schoolers had different reasons for pursuing a language. One completed two years because his universities of choice required such. There were no questions asked because, well, it had to be done. The second learner completed two years of language in high school because the alternative would be to take it at the college (usually more difficult). His story will be told in part 2 of this series post. Another high schooler of ours was determined to finish her two years of foreign language in ninth and tenth grade to "get it out of the way" so other courses could be pursued. She knows according to her top college choices, foreign language will be required for college admission. A fourth scenario, a friend of ours, tried and tried with valiant and diligent study to no avail because learning challenges made study extremely difficult if not impossible. The lessons learned by that family will be told in part 2 as well. 

All four high schoolers--as well as the high schoolers we work with--benefited from counting the costs of ALL possible options and choices, at least all that were known at the time. Each situation was unique. Each young adult would have to live with their decisions and choices, including how, when, where, and whether to complete foreign languages. As with any decision parents and students must make in the high school years, fear should not be the basis of our educational choices. 

Up next, Part II in this series-- Foreign Language Questions YOU Need to Ask

 

This blog post is intended to offer an example of personal experience. It is in no way intended to be legal advice and should not be taken as such. Parents own the sole responsibility for the training and education of their children. 

Transcript Matters: More than One Transcript?

I field a good number of transcript questions each month. In this post, I will address another question I received several times in the past few weeks. 

"What if my high schooler received some credits at the local public school, some through an online venue, and still others through dual enrollment? Do I need to create more than one transcript?" 

Great question. Home educated students have a variety of different environments from which they could possibly learn. Some of these entities are transcript-producing entities, meaning the entity is accredited and provides educational oversight and responsibility for students who take classes through their venue. Others do not produce transcripts (some co-ops and support group opportunities, private instruction and tutoring, church courses and seminars). 

First, it may be helpful to understand what a transcript is. 

A transcript is a permanent academic record which includes all grades conferred to the named student. It represents the student's academic record; a visual summary of the student's high school years. 

As the homeschooling parent overseeing your young adult's learning, you know your learner's academic record in its entirety, both in the home and away from the home. You know when courses were taken as well as which entity provided oversight for each class, whether it was an accredited transcript producing entity or not. You know whether some credits were earned at the local public school, and whether the course included CLEP or AP content, if the corresponding tests were taken, as well as what scores the student achieved. 

Yes, other entities may have conferred grades and credits, but you alone know where and when those grades and credits were earned. The parent-generated transcript you provide not only validates the courses, grades, and credits received directly under your supervision, but also offers employers and universities an overview of course variety and environments from which the student benefited, in and out of the home. Therefore, every course, grade, and credit is documented in one place--on the parent-generated transcript. It will be the parent-generated transcript which alerts any employer or university that they will receive transcripts from other entities.


With four high schoolers, two grads who entered colleges and universities by differing methods and means, we have experienced this first hand. And, we have helped others walk through answering this question as well. In every case, having all courses--no matter where they were taken--documented on the parent-generated transcript was helpful in the admission process. 


How did we denote courses taken outside the home?

First, there must be distinction made. We asked ourselves,

"Was this course taken under the oversight of a legally recognized transcript-producing entity?" 

If the course was taken at such an entity, we flagged the course on the transcript, meaning we added some type of notation super-scripted above the grade. Then we added an explanations of the flags under the grading scale of our transcript. 

  Notation explanation as well as grading scale used for courses taken at home

Notation explanation as well as grading scale used for courses taken at home

For example, all of our high school learners completed foreign language online through an accredited source.  I didn't create the course, its content, or grade the work. This was all provided by the online instructor. As the parent overseeing the education of my student (outlined in our state statute), I knew the course was taken and that the source was accredited by the state, and is a transcript-producing entity. I added the course to my parent-generated transcript to provide colleges with the information that the foreign language requirement was met. However, my superscript alerted the colleges that they would be receiving an additional transcript for admission purposes. 

  Courses taken in the home as well as outside entities.

Courses taken in the home as well as outside entities.

For some students, there may be several superscripts. I worked on a transcript recently for a student who had taken courses at the local public high school, a private school, an online public school, and a state college. The superscript above the corresponding grades provided admission personnel with a quick, concise picture of where this student had received her high school requirements. 


The parent-generated transcript not only validates the courses, grades, and credits received directly under the parent's supervision, but also offers employers and universities an overview of course variety and environments from which the student benefited, in and out of the home.


If you have questions like the one presented in this post, connect with us. Mike and I would love to help you on your journey. We publish Celebrate High School newsletter for families considering or currently walking the high school journey. You can subscribe to that newsletter below. 

This blog post is intended to offer an example of personal experience. It is in no way intended to be legal advice and should not be taken as such. Parents own the sole responsibility for the training and education of their children. 

 

 

Transcript Matters: Courses Taken in Eighth Grade

 

Time to answer another commonly asked question. 

"Can we count courses completed in 8th grade for high school credit? And, how do I document them on the transcript?"

If you are asking these questions, you are not alone! 

First, to answer the first question. 

Yes, by all means you can count eighth grade classes for high school credit as long as doing so remains in the bounds of your state's homeschooling statutes. On this homeschooling journey, parents are able to make these decisions (again, based on their state statutes). However, you should know the hows and whys of the decisions you are making. You may be asked to substantiate your rationale as I did for one of the colleges to which one of our graduates applied. 

As with many things, be ready with an answer. 

When we make the decision as to whether to count an eighth grade class for high school credit, I always ask myself, 

"Is the content of the class considered high school level or above?"

If so, I count the credit. 

Now, for the second question,

"How do we include eighth grade courses on the transcript?"

I include eighth grade, high school level courses, on our young adult's transcript. I note the academic year, course title, grade, and credit received. The format I use is highlighted in the box below. 

I include the specifics on a course description document. Click here if you need more information on course descriptions. 

This blog post is intended to offer an example of personal experience. It is in no way intended to be legal advice and should not be taken as such. Parents own the sole responsibility for the training and education of their children.